Kerala State Veterinary Council
|Kerala State Veterinary Council||Kerala State Veterinary Council|
Thiruvananthapuram – 695 005
Doctors of Veterinary Medicine are medical professionals whose primary responsibility is protecting the health and welfare of animals and people.
Veterinarians diagnose and control animal diseases, treat sick and injured animals, prevent the transmission of animal diseases to people, and advise owners on proper care of pets and livestock. They ensure a safe food supply by maintaining the health of food animals. Veterinarians are also involved in wildlife preservation and conservation and public health of the human population.
Today's veterinarians are members of an important health profession. In taking the veterinarian's oath, a doctor solemnly swears to use his or her scientific knowledge and skills "for the benefit of society, through the protection of animal health, the relief of animal suffering, the conservation of animal resources, the promotion of public health, and the advancement of medical knowledge."
As per provisions of section 32 of the Indian Veterinary Council Act, 1984 all the States/ UT's are required to establish State/UT Veterinary Council in their State/UT. The Kerala state assembly has extended the provision of the IVC Act through a resolution passed in . In 199 Under the provisions of IVC Act, it is the statutory (legal) responsibility of the State/ UT Veterinary Council to Register all the Veterinary Practioners in the sate and constitute Disciplinary Committees as provided in VCI - Standards of Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Code of Ethics Regulations. The Disciplinary Committees are expected to investigate complaints from General Public relating to violation of the code of conduct and professional ethics and other laws of the land including the Animal Welfare Laws or do any culpable offence as proved by a court of law. The State Council would also monitor any violation of provisions of the IVC Act and initiate legal action as and when necessary.The state Veterinary Council is also a body corporate by the name aforesaid, having perpetual succession and a common seal, with power to acquire, hold and dispose property, both movable and immovable, and to contract and shall by the same name sue or be sued."
1. What is veterinary council of India?
Veterinary Council of India is a statutory body constituted under Indian Veterinary Council Act, 1984 (52 of 1984) and charged with the responsibilities of regulation of veterinary practice, standards of veterinary education, preparation and maintenance of an Indian Veterinary practitioners' register and matter ancillary thereto and related thereof.
2. Composition of Veterinary Council Of india
As per section 3 of Indian Veterinary Council Act, 1984 the Veterinary Council of India consists of following members :-
Five members to be nominated by the Central Government from amongst Director of Animal Husbandry (by whatever name called) of those States to which this Act extends.
Four members to be nominated by the Central Government from amongst the heads of veterinary institution in the State to which this Act extends.
One member to be nominated by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research.
The Animal Husbandry Commissioner Govt. of India ex-officio.
One member to be nominated by the Central Government to represent the
Ministry of Central Government dealing with animal husbandry.
One member to be nominated by the Indian Veterinary Association.
Eleven members to be elected from amongst themselves by persons enrolled in the Indian Veterinary practitioners' register.
One member to be nominated by the Central Government from amongst the Presidents of the State Veterinary Councils of those States to which this Act extends.
One member to be nominated by the Central Government from amongst the Presidents of the State Veterinary Associations of those States to which this Act extends.
Secretary, Veterinary Council of India (ex-officio).
3. The Salient Responsibilities of Veterinary Council Of India
lay down minimum standards of veterinary education required for granting recognition to veterinary qualifications granted by veterinary institutions in those States to which this Act extends.
Recommend recognition or withdrawal of recognition of veterinary qualifications granted to veterinary institutions in India.
Maintain the Indian veterinary practitioners' register which shall contain the names of all persons who possess the recognised veterinary qualifications and who are for the time being enrolled on a state veterinary register of the State to which Indian Veterinary Council Act extends.
lay down the standards of professional conduct, etiquette and code of ethics to be observed by registered veterinary practitioners.
Negotiate with institutions out side the country imparting training in veterinary education for recognition of their qualifications on reciprocal basis.
Advise both the Central and the State Governments, on all matters concerning veterinary education and practice.
4. Registered veterinary Practitioners
All persons whose name is for the time being included in the Indian Veterinary practioners' register are called reg. vety practitioners (RVP).
Only registered veterinary practitioners shall have the right to hold office as veterinary physician, surgeon or such similar position (by whatever name called) in any state; Authenticate health certificates and give evidence under Indian Evidence act, 1872, on matters relating to veterinary medicine.
Only persons registered on the Indian veterinary practitioners' register (IVPR) shall be entitled to practice veterinary medicine and to recover fees and charges in respect of medicaments and other appliances used/engaged for the purpose. Veterinary practice by unregistered persons, would be unlawful except that minor veterinary services, under supervision of a registered Veterinary practitioner is permissible, by `specified' persons to the extend that the State Government prescribes.
STATUS: The Veterinary Council of India The Veterinary Council of India is a body corporate by the name aforesaid, having perpetual succession and a COMMON SEAL, with power to acquire, hold and dispose property, both movable and immovable, and to contract and shall by the same name sue or be sued."
The Insignia of the Veterinary Council Of India
The Veterinary Council of India drew its insignia from the Ashokan era which projects the veterinary profession of India in its "best heritage". The sculpture of a bull and a part of the text of the stone edict are from the period of Emperor Ashoka (Around 300 B.C.). Ashoka, the grandson of Chandra Gupta who turned to Buddhism, had given Veterinary Science in India a new turn. It is described that the first veterinary hospital on record existed in Ashoka's regime. (Schwabe C.W. 1978; Cattle, Priests and Progress in Medicine, University Minnesota Press Pp 13 & 1331]
The sculpture of the bull is considered by archeologists as a piece having reached `the pinnacle of its realistic acme' reflecting life in natural form. [History and culture of Indian people Volume II: MAJUMDAR R.C. PUSALKER, Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan 1951 Pp 5-8].
Rampurwa Bull Capital The figure on the emblem of the council is taken from the sculpture of the bull that formed the capital of a pillar erected during the Ashokan period. The sculpture was recovered from the township of Rampur in Bihar. The Bull capital was conserved in the Calcutta Museum. Now it is located in Rashtrapathi Bhawan, the official residence of the President of India.
The Sculpture of the bull is considered by archeologist as a piece having reached the pinnacle of its realistic acme, reflecting life in natural form [History and Culture of Indian People Volume II ed: Majumdar R.C. Pusalker, Bhartiaya Vidya Bhawan, 1951 pp 5-8]. The bull was not only the symbol of prosperity but also depicted vigor, virility in form & fertility. (Randhwaa M.S. History of Agriculture in India Volume II)
To go with the symbol the council could choose a `Pali' script from IX rock edict of the Ashokan era which read on the fourth line `Panesu Saymo' [Barua B.M. (1955) Ashoka and his inscriptions, Calcutta. The nearest meaning of which could be "compassion for animals".
The stone edict To go with the symbol the council could choose a Pali Script from the IX Rock Edict which read on its fourth line 'Panesu Saymo' [Barua B.M. (1955) Ashoka and his Inscriptions, Calcutta] Ashoka's adoption of Buddhism, gave a new meaning to animal care. Animals, till then were considered mere object of benefit, utility or status. Ashokan tenets started describing animals as co-existents of the planet. A part of his dictum was 'Panesu Saymo' the nearest Sanskrit version of which should be 'Sarveshu Praneshu Samyamah'. The essence of it is gentleness or kindness to animals though the precise translation in difficult.
'Pani' or Prani in modern language means living being' a word originating from Prana. 'Prana' relates to breathing. The importance of breathing in life was well understood and observed not only in man but even in the smallest creatures. 'Saymo' (Samyamah) is the disciplining of ones deeds and feelings (towards living being).The message reflects dictum of an age in which the animal as not considered as mere wealth or as an object of benefit, but also as a co-existant of the planet and marks a distinct transformation of concept from earlier era. [Early History of India by Smith p.184]. The sentimental and biological undertone rather than commercial or materialistic outlook prevailed during Ashokan era. Whether in production, practice or companion animal care the importance of the message cannot be understated. Compassion is the key to hospital and husbandry practices. This would find more meaning in our age, as we find how in some countries stress on animals and the intense production practices have boomeranged' causing metabolic and systemic problems. In India where individual and small group management is undertaken and personal involvement (rather than mechanical work) is the order, gentleness has added meaning. This would be one of the themes of our ethics as well. Deservedly, this era can be described as €˜the golden era of Veterinary Science' in the sub continent.
'V' stands for 'Veterinary Science' which encompasses animal health and husbandry (Encyclopedia Britanica). The snake and the pole represent treatment of disease and protection from suffering. The pole (staff) and serpent therefore has become a symbol of cure from evil, disease and death.
Regulations Prepared by VCI as provided by the ACT The Council (VCI) has framed the following regulations with the prior approval of the Central Government. As per provisions of sub section (3) of Section 66 of Indian Veterinary Council Act, 100 copies of the same were placed on the table on the both Houses of Parliament. All the regulations have the same force of law as the act itself.
V.C.I. - (GENERAL) REGULATIONS, 1991. (Notified in Gazette of India Extraordinary No. 425 dated 18th November, 1991 in Part, II Section (3) sub-section (i)).
V.C.I. - (INSPECTORS' AND VISIOTRS') REGULATIONS, 1991, (Notified in Gazette of India Extraordinary No. 412, dated 12th November, 1991, Part II, Section 3, sub-section (i).) for the award of veterinary qualification.
V.C.I. - (REGISTRATION) REGULATION, 1991. (Notified in Gazette of India Extraordinary No. 24th February, 1992) Part II, Section 3 of sub-section (i).
V.C.I. - (STANDARDS OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT, ETTIQUETTE AND CODE OF ETHICS) REGULATIONS, 1992 (Notified in Gazette of India Extraordinary No. 154, dated 1st April, 1992, Part II Section 3 of section (i)).
V.C.I.-(FEES AND ALLOWANCES) REGULATIONS,1992.(Notified in gazette of India Extraordinary No, 153 dated 1st April, 1993, Part II, Section 3 of sub-section (i).
V.C.I.- MINIMUM STANDARDS OF VETERINARY EDUCATION-DEGREE COURSE (B.V.Sc. & A.H.) REGULATIONS, (Notified in Extraordinary Gazette of India No. 57 dated 7th February, 1994 Part II, Section 3 of sub-section (i).)
V.C.I. - ELECTION OF PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT REGULATION (Notified in gazette of India Extraordinary No.39 dated 29th August, 1995 Part III, Section 4)
VC.I. - (Terms and conditions of service of the Secretary, other officers and employees) Regulations. VETERINARY PRACTICE REGULATIONS: The Council has also prepared the VCI - (Veterinary Practice) Regulation as provided under preamble of the Indian Veterinary Council Act, 1984 read with clause (n) of sub-section (2) of Section 66 of Act.
To prepare and maintain the Indian Veterinary Practitioners' Register containing the names of all persons who possess the recognized veterinary qualifications and who are for the time being enrolled on a State Veterinary Register of the State to which Indian Veterinary Council Act extends.
To lay down minimum standards of veterinary education required for granting recognized veterinary qualifications by veterinary institutions.
To lay down the standards of professional conduct, etiquette and code of ethics to be observed by veterinary practitioners.
To regulate veterinary practice in the State.
To advise the State Governments on all regulatory matters concerning veterinary practice and education.
To implement the provisions of the Act, and Rules and Regulations framed thereunder.
Functions of Veterinary Institutions
1. Veterinary institutions undertaking professional service shall analyse the needs of the animal, animal owner, household, society, village, block/ mandal, district and state in that order. A macrolevel (regional or national) policy shall be developed by the country on the basis of this grass root data.
2. The primary objective of Veterinary service is animals' welfare and well being that optimise (as against maximise) its health and performance. Any effort therefore must sustain environment, compliment human development and deliver social justice. The principle under which the primary Veterinary service is delivered are-
The health promotion, essential animal health care and at least a minimal veterinary medical service must be delivered under the principle of equity; for this there should be universal coverage.
Besides curative aspects, primary Veterinary care should include promotive, preventive and developmental services.
The service for development should be effective, efficient, affordable and acceptable to local communities, through choice of appropriate methods and in a manner that it can be delivered at all levels.
Individuals and community should be encouraged to be involved in developing a self reliant promotive system whose basis would be awareness of feeding, breeding and management through a knowledge delivery system as part of a professional service.
Because of close inter-relation among animal, man (community) and enviornment, veterinary sector must reach beyond health care and veterinary medical service, to include other support systems needed for feeding, breeding and the overall development of animals.
Veterinary centres shall seek to promote overall development of the animals through overall development of the society in which they are brought up so that animals and society play a mutually complementary role, rather than veterinarians seeking isolated development of animals without involving the society.
Animal Resource Development
Animal Resource Development in India
A means to sustainability, multiple income earning opportunity (MIEO), equity and life support to millions, specially differently able persons, small holders, weaker sections, women & children.
Domestic animals, free living animals and wild animals have, for each, a specific role as an important component of the ecosystem that holds the balance between man and nature.. Animals have a cultural element, essential in maintaining the traditional life style. Yak and camel has made it possible for humans to live in harsh areas where cropping is virtually impossible.
In India Animal Resources exist in the form of a vast array of breeds and livestock populations which have evolved and adapted to the range of environmental conditions encountered in each region over many centuries. India has 30 recognised breeds of cattle, 15 of buffaloes, 42 of sheep, 20 of goats, 8 of horses, many ponies, donkeys and some ethnic breeds of dogs. Our own breeds of cattle and poultry (18 breed of poultry are recorded) had been used for evolving some of the world's best utility animals.
A major chunk of live-stock farmers in India while living themselves on edge, produce milk, meat, eggs etc. for the community often at a cost that is unimaginably low. Objective of this paper is to identify the immense potential of animal resources of India and how they benefit of the community in a sustainable manner.
1. The Husbandry system in India is essentially as a vocation of millions of small holders As the system is not grain based it does not put animals to compete with man for food. €œThe cost effectiveness, the economics marketing opportunity and sustainability of this system is worth investigating.
*As per data available in 1994-95, India had 87 Million Tons (MT) of wheat straw, 2.7 MT maize cobs and 89.5 MT of sugar cane bagasse.
2. Animals in India are equitably distributed, Sixty percent of labour of livestock rearing in India is provided by women and more than 90% of work related to care of animals is rendered by womenfolk of the family. As high as 70% of livestock in India, is owned by 67% of small, marginal and landless farmers
3. The gross national income from animals, by a modest estimate is around Rs.1,83,000 crores per annum. This would roughly mean Rs.500.21 crores daily. and is generated without any substantial state support like
4. Animal Power and Energy Draught Animal Power (DAP) is the muscle power of Draught Animals (DA's).74 million (m). bullocks and 8 m. buffaloes make available 40 m. Hp, and energy worth Rs.10,000 crores per year. DA's plough 100 m. hectares of area sown (66%), and haul 25 billion ton kilometers of freight in 15 m. Animal Drawn Carts (ADCs). DAP annually saves six m. tons of petroleum, worth >Rs. 12,000 crores, mostly in foreign exchange. Asset value of DAP system is >Rs.25,000 crores.
5. Animal Driven Generator 5. : 10th plan sub-committee on Draught animal power has considered an animal mini-generator that works on a bullock driven dynamo and with alternators and energy storage devices. These Micro-generators with low cost of transmission and transmission losses may be useful in far flung areas that are denied development for want of power and communication.
6. Animal waste (biomass) Animal waste (biomass) reduces the soil abuse caused through overuse of chemical fertilisers and retains precious water needed to sustain crops. Manure is a major source of energy for cooking. Indian cattle and buffaloes produce(by a modest estimate) more than 800 MT (million tons) of fiber rich dung every year In rural India where, 90% of households use crop residues and cow dung cakes for cooking.
It is now known that the residual effect of chemicals and insecticides like D.D.T. remains up to 8 years in the soil even after its use is stopped. It can get transferred on to the food grains, cow's milk and mothers' milk
Animals' role in Water/ moisture management: The large volumes of biomass they consume are digested and are turned back to soil. A fine example of harmony among man animal and nature is seen.
The draught is classified as follows: Meteorological Draught is lack of rain as compared to normal rain fall; Hydrological draught occurs when lack of rain fall can not be made-up through other water source. Agricultural draught results when plantation Live-stock start getting affected.
Live-stock wastes of hi=tech farms of west contain harmful residues, including variety of drugs & chemicals (such as arsenic, selenium, copper, and zinc). are the biggest polluters
7. Animals convert organic waste to protein The role played by pigs in garbage clearing, providing earning opportunity and production of affordable protein to economically weak sections cannot be under-emphasized. China uses pigs in community toilets for sanitation and waste utilisation. In India such a system is prevalent in some pockets. There is scope to explore the role of animals and the use of animal waste management for sustainable sanitation through scientific veterinary intervention. Use of manure gas (gobar gas) though limited (0.3% & 0.1%) is also an eco-friendly method.
8. Animal husbandry provides evens out seasonal farm labour demands inherent in crop sector and reduces migration.
9. Foreign exchange The vocations like leather processing, provides livelihood to the weaker constituted 5.4% of India's export This is not dependent on imports of machinery or raw material.
10. Wild animals and birds sustain our natural forests They prey on plant parasites, generate carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and help pollination, seed distribution etc. Herbivores limit imbalance of plants growth and carnivores limit herbivores, that denude the plant kingdom. India has perhaps one of the richest wild animal biodiversity. The buffer zone between forests and human/ domestic animal habitat form critical point buffer zone management.
11. Since live-stock is not reared away from habitation, the Indian system provides opportunity for to indulge and involve with animals forming part of their life style and livelihood or companions at work for poor.
12. Animals play a key role in domestic & social security and policing. Watch dogs police tracking dogs, horses camels & horses are used for chasing smugglers. industrial security. NASA had been using geese for alerting any intrusion for high security zone
13. Animals can provide mental diversion and an opportunity for and indulgence to soldiers recuperating from war.
14. In the new social order, where both parents pursue career, fast life style. companion animals have an important role to play in involving childrenin reducing mental tension.
15. Animals provide physical and psychological support to epileptic and the blind to lead a better life through their care seeking behaviour providing a degree of self worth.
16. Animals can provide companionship to children in. Orphanages where it is impossible to provide the one to one care to infants. Children below 19 yrs, constitute 47.7% of the total population of India. For rural Children graze the goats, calves or donkeys.
17. Animals provide companionship to the aged citizens whom Handicap is physical and mental when the young and the able bodied have to leave their state for better opportunities. India has 70 million aged ie. 60 plus. 90% of them are from unorganized In rural areas live-stock or poultry can provide an earning and a means for inter-action 19.Animals and birds help to clear pests and parasites. Dogs and geese watch homes; goats&, sheep graze and clear the grass, shrubs and bushes Ducks chiken ,and fish scavenge through manure & dung pits and clear larvae or parasitize plants. cats do biological control of rodents that deplete our domestic grain stores is well known.
18. During disaster animals are the only salvageable assets of the poorest among the victims. Twenty six of the 36 states/ UT's of India are prone to some disaster or the other. Animals can be used for search & rescue operations, as means of transport of injured.
19. Animals are the mainstay of biological research inxcluding behavioural studies 70% of the Nobel prize winners in biology had laboratory animals as subjects of their research.
20. Animals are partners of relaxation, amusements and sports. Animals are part of tourism. Rich animal bio-diversity of our country too attract tourists.
21. Multiple income opportunity
Poultry farming goat keeping are opportunity for masses to income even without disturbing their labour opportunities. Even the poultry industry of India is a mass production by a few
India produces 30 billion eggs and 0.6 million tons poultry meat, through one lakh small scale farms providing livelihood for 1.5 million people. In contrast Russia produces 50 billion eggs and 2.5 million tons poultry meat through 600 layer farms & 270 broiler farms (Desai, A. 1998). Furthermore, 70% of the poultry of India is still reared in the backyards.