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Schemes and Programmes
Centrally sponsored Schemes
The State Rural Development Department is implementing Poverty Alleviation Programmes aimed at sustainable development of rural areas with focus on weaker and vulnerable sections.
The following are the schemes focused on special development activities, implemented by the Department:
1. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (Mahatma Gandhi NREGA)
The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 seeks to enhance the livelihood security of the households in rural areas of the country by providing at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment to every house hold whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. Any family which requires employment under the scheme should register in the Grama Panchayat. A registered household will be given a unique registration number by the Grama Panchayat. A registered house hold subsequently will become eligible to get a job card. Only households having a job card can apply for jobs.
The central government will provide the entire funds for payment of wages to unskilled labourer, 75% of costs of materials and wages for skilled and semi skilled laborers and administrative expenses including salary and allowances of programme officers and their support staff and work site facilities. The state government will provide 25 % of costs of materials and wages for skilled and semi skilled labourers.
The wages under KREGS shall be paid at the rate of Agricultural minimum wages as notified by the State Government from time to time. The Minimum wage rate notified by the Labour Department to the Agricultural labourers is Rs 125/-
The programme will be implemented as a centrally sponsored scheme on cost sharing basis between the Centre and the State 90:10.
2. Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY)
Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) is a housing programme implementing through Local Self Government Institutions. The beneficiaries are selected from below poverty line list. It is a centrally sponsored scheme and the funding of the programme will be shared between the centre and the states in the ratio of 75: 25. This programme will particularly focus on the shelter less family among the rural poor. Accordingly the SC/ST will be covered for a minimum of 60%, minority for 15% and disabled for 3% and the remaining for general category.
Objectives: The objective of IAY is to provide houses for the rural poor families who should not have the dwelling units. The unit cost of IAY houses is Rs. 38,500/- per house. Supplementary assistance may be given to the beneficiaries, those who are selected from the BPL list. The assistance is sanctioned to the female members of the family or in the joint name of husband and wife. Out of the total allocation for IAY, 80% may be utilized for new construction of houses and 20% for either upgradation of kutcha houses or for new construction under credit-cum-subsidy scheme.
3. Swarnajayanthi Grama Swarozgar Yogana (SGSY)
Brief Description : Swarnajayanthi Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) is a holistic programme covering all aspects of self employment such as organisation of the poor in Self Help Groups, training, credit, technology, infrastructure and marketing. It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme and the financing of the programme will be shared between the Centre and the State in the ratio 75:25. Accordingly, the bank assistance under SGSY is expected to be provided to SHGs for supporting the group level micro enterprises or individual enterprises established by their members. Assistance may also be provided to individual swarozgaris outside the SHGs. This programme will particularly focus on the vulnerable groups among the rural poor. Accordingly the SCs/STs will account for a minimum of 50%, women for 40%, minority for 15% and disabled for 3% of the total swarozgaris assisted during the year.
Objectives: The objective of SGSY is to bring the swarozgaris (poor rural families) above the poverty line by providing them with income generating assets through a mix of bank credit and Government subsidy by ensuring appreciable sustained level of income over a period of time.
4. Integrated Wasteland Development Programme/HARIYALI
IWD Projects are being implemented in Idukki, Kannur, Kasaragod, Wayanad and Palakkad Districts. IWDP Project in Kannur District was sanctioned during 2000-2001. Project was sanctioned in Kasaragod District during 2000-2001. Two Projects were sanctioned in Palakkad District under IWDP Project I and Project II during the year 1991-92 and 1992-93. Project was sanctioned in Wayanad District during 1994-95.
5. Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)
Government of India have launched the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana on 25th December, 2000. The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) is a 100% Centrally Sponsored Scheme. 50% of the Cess on High Speed Diesel (HSD) is earmarked for this Programme.
The primary objective of the PMGSY is to provide Connectivity, by way of an All-weather Road (with necessary culverts and cross-drainage structures, which is operable throughout the year, to the unconnected Habitations in the rural areas, in such a say that Habitations with a population of 1000 persons and above are covered in three years (2000-2003) and all unconnected Habitations with a population of 500 persons and above by the end of the Tenth Plan Period (2007).
The spirit and the objective of the Pradhan Manthri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) is to provide good all-weather road connectivity to the unconnected Habitations. It must be ensured that provision of New Connectivity (i.e., connecting unconnected Habitations) should be given precedence in keeping with the objectives of the Programme.
A Core Network is that minimal Network of roads (routes) that is essential to provide basic access to essential social economic services to all eligible habitations in the selected areas through at least single all-weather road connectivity. It should be ensured that each roadwork that is taken up under the PMGSY is part of the Core Network. The PMGSY shall cover only the rural areas. The PMGSY envisages only single road Connectivity to be provided.
Provision of connectivity to unconnected Habitations would be termed as New connectivity. Up gradation, when permitted would typically involve conversion from Gravel or Water Bound Macadam (WBM) stage to the desired technical specifications or widening of the roads, subject to traffic studies. Provision of Cross Drainage (CD) works alone would also be treated as up gradation under PMGSY.
Rural Development Department is the nodal agency for implementation of the programme in the State. The programme is under implementation in 55 Blocks spread over all the 14 districts.
6. Total Sanitation Campaign
In April 1999, Government of India revamped the CRSP and introduced the Total sanitation Campaign (TSC). The allocation based CRSP has ceased from 31st March 2002. From 2002-03 onwards, TSC is the only Sanitation Programme for supporting sanitation schemes in rural areas. The main objectives of the TSC are as under:-
1. Administrative cost for District Rural Development Agencies (DRDAs)
Ministry of Rural Development has launched a Centrally Sponsored Scheme from 1-4-99 for strengthening of DRDAs. This scheme is funded on 75:25 basis between Centre and State. The administrative cost of the DRDAs such as salary of officers and staff as well as contingencies inclusive of rent fuel office expenses etc are to be met from the amount provided under this scheme. The central assistance will be as per the pattern of cost ceiling fixed by Government of India. State Governments are allowed up to 10% of the total admissible cost of all the districts in the state.
2. Facilitation for Innovative Project including Outsourcing
One of the major challenges facing rural development is management of liquid and solid wastes. This area is one in which adequate expertise is not available. There have been various initiatives in this regard, the explicability of which in the Kerala context has not been assessed. Therefore outsourcing for availing new technologies and services in this sector is desirable. Similarly improving the access of the poor to engineering services e.g. for construction of well, house, sanitary unit etc, can be effected by outsourcing these provisions by the Grama or Block panchayats.
Likewise, specific vulnerabilities of Self Help Group undertaking micro enterprises for income generation like (a ) inability to asses market needs and to identify and creatively respond to consumer demands (b) Inability to effect value addition to a product through standardisation, quality control and packaging (c) inability to innovate and tap creativity for design and (d) inadequate access to market are to be addressed.
It is proposed to provide provision for enabling greater private-public interface, adoption of technological and community based innovations in areas of waste management hygiene, watershed practices, micro enterprises, value addition, marketing etc through facilitating innovations, consultancies, outsourcing for project formulation, demonstration and adoption etc.
3. Block Information Centres
Block Information Centres have been established for building up a comprehensive database in Block Offices thereby providing all the basic and necessary information required for Panchayat and Block level planning process on a continued basis. In the annual plan for 2004-05 it is intended for computerization/upgradation/upkeep and maintenance of computers and accessories/computer training to staff/purchase of computer stationery/other recurring and non-recurring expenditure directly related to Block Information Centre so as to keep the computer net work in the Blocks functional and to establish and maintain connectivity with District Rural Development Agencies/Collectorate/Commissionerate of Rural Development. These Centres are function as Nodal Centres both for disseminating information on technological and other innovations. The proposed provision is intended for upgradation, recurring expenditure and training cost.
4. STATE INSTITUTE OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT [SIRD]
In view of the massive need for capacity building of the personnel of the department to facilitate Local Self Government (LSGs) and for reorientation towards providing specialized services in Income Generation Scheme, shelter, sanitation, watershed development etc, the allocation for the SIRD was proposed to be increased substantially, so also it is proposed to upgrade the assets and infrastructural facilities of SIRD and Extension Training Centres (ETCs). This enhanced allocation was to come through a State scheme. As per G.O (MS) No 88/03/LSGD dated 12/3/2003 the Extension Training Centers VIz, kottarakkara, Mannuthy, Thaliparamba have already been brought under the academic control of the SIRD as advised by the State Planning Board, in order to improve the quality of training programmes and to make them effective.
The State Institute of Rural Development (SIRD) is the apex-training centre of Rural Development Department in the State on par with NIRD at the national scene. At present SIRD conducts various training programmes for staff of the Rural Development Department of and above the rank of BDOs including the foundation course of newly recruited BDOS. They also impart training to Voluntary Organisations, Officials and Elected Representatives of the three tier Panchayats. The provision is for meeting the State Share corresponding to Central assistance for meeting the recurring expenditure.
Capacity Building of Staff in the context of decentralization is a pressing need, not only to ameliorate the working atmosphere in Local Self Governments and redefine roles, but also to identify space and scope for creative intervention in decentralization and participatory process. Capacity building for gender budgeting, developing an anti poverty sub plan, and incorporating watershed concepts into spatial development also needs to be effected. Capacity Building for community empowerment touches four categories, viz.
5. Extension Training Centres (ETCs)
Rural Development Department has three Extension Training Centres at Kottarakkara, Mannuthy and Taliparamba for catering to the training needs of officials below the rank of Block Development Officers (BDOs) as well as elected representatives of Panchayat Raj Institutions. These three Institutions were established in the early fifties when the emphasis was mainly on community development. The ETCs are currently imparting pre-service training to newly recruited VEOs/ LVEOs as well as various induction courses of VEO/LVEOs and Extension Officers. Also various short terms courses for officials, elected representatives of Panchayats, village level leaders, representatives of NGOS, Self-Help Groups etc. are imparted through these Centres. Skill development training for village Artisans is also being conducted at ETC, Kottatakkara. The proposed outlay is for the infrastructure development of ETCs and for conducting the training programmes.
6. Integrate and Sustainable Eco-Development of Attapady and Comprehensive Environmental Conservation Project.
This JBIC aided project envisages the integrated and sustainable eco-development of Attappady wasteland. The project is implemented by the Attappady Hills Area Development Society (AHADS). The main aim of the project is to enable the sustainable development of Attappady by planning and implementing eco-restoration programmes in the degraded area and economic development schemes for the people below poverty line with focus on Scheduled Tribes, particularly women. Activities like water resource development, soil conservation, organic farming, agro forestry, agriculture, sericulture, animal husbandry, pisciculture, beekeeping, etc. are envisaged under this programme.
The project assistance reached the State Government from JBIC through Government of India. The funds proposed is for funding the various activities currently being undertaken by AHARDS, which will later be reimbursed by JBIC.
7. NABARD-RIDF-Rural Roads Projects
Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF) has been floated from 1995-96 by NABARD for financing by way of long term loans for Rural Infrastructure Development Projects of State Government, such as Watershed Development, Irrigation including Minor Irrigation, Rural Bridges, Rural Roads etc. implemented through different Departments. For the first two years under RIDF I and RIDF-II no project had been sanctioned under Rural Roads implemented through Rural Development Department. In G.O. (P) No.609/98/Fin. Dated, 10-2-1998, Government has framed the guidelines for proper implementation of Rural Road Projects under RIDF.