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Shri. P. K. Abdu Rabb
Room No: 501
N. C. C. Directorate
Brigadier G. Subramanian Deputy Director General NCC
Fax: 0471- 2727129
About the Department
The National Cadet Corps (NCC) is not a Para-Military organization. It is a youth development movement. It has enormous potential for nation building. The NCC provides opportunities to the youth of the country for their all-round development with a sense of Duty and Discipline, Commitment, Dedication, and Moral Values so that they become able leaders and useful citizens. The NCC provides exposure to the cadets in a wide range of activities., with a distinct emphasis on Social Services, Discipline and Adventure Training. It has emerged as the biggest uniformed youth organization of the country symbolizing its motto Unity and Discipline. The expenditure of the Program me is shared by both Central and State Governments. The NCC is open to all regular students of schools and colleges on a voluntary basis. The officers and cadets have no liability for active military service. The Corps which started in a small way with a cadet strength of 1.67 lakhs ( only 32,500 Senior Division and 1,35,00 Junior Division cadets) has now grown to 13 lakhs. While this figure by itself is quite substantial, it covers only 3.8% of the eligible student population of our country. During the 1965 and 1971 wars with Pakistan, NCC cadets were the second line of defence. They organised camps to assist the ordnance factories, supplying arms and ammunition to the front, and also were used as patrol parties to assist in capturing the enemy Paratroopers. The NCC cadets also worked hand-in-hand with the Civil Defence authorities and actively took part in rescue work and Traffic Control. After the 1971 Indo-Pak War, the NCC syllabus was revised. Rather than training to becoming the second line of defence, NCC syllabus laid greater stress on developing qualities of leadership and Officer-like qualities. The military training which the NCC cadets received was reduced and greater importance was given to other areas like social service and youth-management.NCC is not an organisation which is to serve as a ‘feeder’, for the entry of students into the Defence Services. It is an organisation to make them useful citizens of the country, irrespective of the vocation they may choose on completion of their studies.Hence, NCC activities are only a ‘means to an end’; the ‘end’ being the achievement of the “Aims of NCC” in the context of the students.
National Cadet Corps has its genesis in the “ University Corps ” , which was created under the Indian Defence Act, 1917 with the objective to make up the shortages in the then British Indian Army. In 1920, when the Indian Territorial Act was passed , the “University Corps” was replaced by “ University Training Crops (UTC)”. In 1942, the University Training Corps was renamed as the “University Officers’ Training Corps (UOTC)”.
Most of the Universities had a “University Officers Training Corps( U.O.T.C)” and each one of them had “Indian Air Corps (I.A.T.C)” . Besides, “Sea Scout Units” existed in some parts of the country. There were, in addition, organisations like “Sahayak Sena” and “Social Service League” which, though not strictly youth organisations, provided young men with opportunities of learning the duties of citizenship and developing their personality. Even though the aforementioned organisations were doing useful work, their numbers were too small for a county of the size of India. Apart form this, the “U.O.T.C” Scheme was found to have deficiencies. In view of these deficiencies, Government of India appointed a Committee in July, 1964 to consider and make recommendations for the establishment, of a Cadet Corps Organisation both in schools and colleges, on a nation wide basis. Pandit H.N.KUNZRU was appointed in September,1964 to chair the Committee.Recommendations of this Committee paved the way for the formation of the NCC. The Committee submitted it’s recommendations for the establishment of a “National Cadet Corps” in place of “U.O.T.C”.Thus, the National Cadets Corps came into existence under the National Cadet Corps Act XXXI of 1948 (passed in April, 1948; came into existence on 16th July, 1948 ) under the Ministry of Defence (MOD) and the Corps was established in July, 1948.
The Corps which started in a small way with a cadet strength of 1.67lakhs (only 32,500 Senior Division and 1,35,00 Junior Division cadets) has now grown to 13 lakhs.The networks of 774 NCC units is spread from offshore Union Territories of Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweeep to the freezing heights of Leh, up in the Himalayas as also from Kutch in the West to Kohima in the East, through 5251 colleges and 8410 school.
The National Cadet Corps was given an inter-Services image in 1950 when the Air Wing was added, followed by the Naval Wing in 1952.Earlier, in 1949, the Girls’ Division had been brought in to give equal opportunities to the school and college going girls of the country.In 1952, the NCC curriculum was extended to include the subject of Community Development as a part of the NCC Syllabus. As a large number of school students wanted to join the Junior Division and as the financial resources (available then) were not sufficient, an Auxiliary Cadet Corps (A.C.C) was formed in 1952 as a supplement to the Junior Division of the N.C.C with the motto: “ Service to the country”. The per capita expenditure on an A.C.C Cadet was much less than for a NCC Cadet. Subsequently a similar situation arose in respect of Senior Division and to cope up with the large number of applicants, wanting to join this Division, the N.C.C Rifle (N.C.C.R) Units were raised in February, 1960, with a less per capita expenditure as compared to the Senior Division N.C.C.
After the Chinese aggression in 1962, the Ministry of Defence, agreeing with the recommendations of the 'Inter–University Board', made N C C compulsory, in all colleges. Auxiliary Cadet Corps and N.C.C Rifles were merged with the NCC. After enrolment into N.C.C was made compulsory for all college students, a decline in the efficiency of the Corps was noticeable due to:-
(a) Enrolment of a number of indifferent cadets having no inclination to join NCC.
(b) Lack of adequate number of officers to train the cadets, and
(c) Lack of equipment, weapons and other facilities.
However, the hap-hazard growth of NCC was checked from 1969 on-wards, when many Universities made it optional for the students to join two other parallel organisations, namely, National Service Scheme ( NSS ) and National Sports Organisation (NSO) which were introduced in colleges, making it optional for students to join any one of the three schemes, according to their choice.In 1972 Government agreed with the recommendations of theInter–University Board to make enrolment in NCC voluntary and accordingly reduced the number of cadets to be enrolled in the NCC Senior Division.
Man power requirements compelled the British to pass the ‘Indian Defence Force Act’ in 1917 which provided for creation of the University Corps (UC) as a constituent of the British Indian Defence Forces.
In 1920, Territorial Force Units were introduced as the second line of defence, after the regular Army. Territorial force units consisted of Provincial Units, Medical Units, Urban Units and the University Corps (UC’; the University Corps (UC) was re-designated as University Training Corps (UTC).In 1925, “Sandhurst Committee” was set up to consider induction of Indian aspirants for Kings Commission, as also to establish a Military Academy in India. The committee recommended that the UTC be regarded as suitable, for training of the Officer Cadre, of Indian Army.Due to the aforementioned recommendation, ‘UTC’ gained significant importance and many prominent persons such as Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, Mr Moraji Desai, Air Marshal Subroto Mukherjee, Gen TN Rana, MVC, and so on, were members of UTC as college students.In 1942, during the Second World War, UTC was re-designated as University Officers Training Corps (UOTC). However, members of UTOC who were aspirants for ‘Kings Commission’ were found to be lacking many essential qualities, essential for a Defence Forces Officer .Hence, a Committee was appointed on 15 Jul 1946 to study and recommend for the establishment of a pan-India Cadet Corps, at both School and College levels. Lt Col Iskander Mirza ( who later went on to become President of Pakistan)was nominated as the Chairman. Later on Pandit Hridaynath Kunzru was made the chairman and Lt Col Iskander Mirza was the made vice chairman.
AIMS ENVISAGED FOR THE PROPOSED ORGANISATION
Development of Leadership, character, comradeship and the ideal of service. The stimulation of interest in the defence of the country to the widest possible extent.
THE KUNZRU COMMITTEE
Between July 1946 and March 1947, various sub committees of the Kunzru committee toured India.One sub committee went to both UK & France, to study Cadet organisations in particular, and ‘Youth Movements’ in general, of those countries.
OBSERVATIONS MADE IN UK BY THE KUNZRU COMMITTEE
Cadet organisations exist only for boys above 14 yrs. They were Educational and voluntary in nature.
Both the Defence Services HQs & Education Ministry, actively involved in the functioning of the Cadet organizations, by way of providing finances, as well as instructors for technical training.
Recommendations of Kunzru committee were generally based on British models and were as under:-
- To be designated as ‘National Cadet Corps’.
- To have 3 Divisions.
- Junior Division for Schools.
- Senior Division for Colleges. In place of UOTC.
- To have Girls Division.
- Intial strength to be only 1, 27000.
- To be Voluntary
- No service liability.
- SD to have 3 Wings
Army, Navy, Air Force.
For overseeing implementation, a Secretariat composing of all branches of Armed Forces under the over-all executive control of Defence Ministry. For Coordination & Control Central & Regional Advisory Committees, as under, to be set up.
CENTRAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE
- DEF MINISTER- President
- Three Service Chiefs.
- Reps from the Min of Edn.
- Six Non-official members.
- On 16 Jul 48, NCC formed under an Act of Parliament.
- Colonel GG Bewoor was the first Director who translated the recommendations of the Kunzru Committee into actions. He enunciated the First Set of Aims of NCC as under :-
- Todevelop character, comradeship, the ideal of service and capacity for leadership in young men and women.
- To provide Service Training to young men and women so as to stimulate interest in the defence of the country.
- To build up a reserve of manpower to enable the Armed Forces to expand in a national emergency
- In 1949 Girls Wing formed.
- In 1950 Air Wing formed.
- In 1952 Naval Wing formed.
- Earlier, while elementary military training was given to School students, College students were trained as potential Officers. Hence Units of Armoured Corps, Artillery, Engrs, Signals, Infantry and Medical Units introduced into NCC, on the lines of Army.
- 1952, the NCC curriculum extended to include Community Development as part of NCC Syllabus.
- In 1952, Auxiliary Cadet Corps (ACC) established as a suppliment to the Junior Division, to meet the pressing demand for more Junior Division units. Motto of ACC was : “ Service to the Country”.
- Due to the over-whelming demand for NCC Units in Schools and colleges, another Organisation named NCC Rifles (NCCR) was introduced in 1960, for larger coverage at a lesser cost. Coympanies were commanded by teachers. 15 Coympanies under a Group HQ was commanded by an Army Officer of the rank of Major.
- After the 1962 Chinese aggression, NCC made compulsory in 1963. Kerala was the first state to implement it.
- NCCR merged with NCC in 1964.
- However, due to resistance by students and adverse reports by some Vice Chancellors’, enrolment in NCC reverted to its earlier voluntary status in 1964.
THE MAHAJANI COMMITTEE
- In 1972, it was felt that every component of NCC had atrophied and there was a need to re-evaluate it to make it more cost effective and efficient.
- Hence Mahajani Commiittee set up.
- Mr Mahajani was the VC of Pune University.
- Unlike the Kunzru Committee, Mahajani Committee had only one Service officer as a member.
STIPULATIONS TO MAHAJANI COMMITTEE
- To evaluate the NCC Programme since its inception, with specific reference to whether its ‘Aims and Objectives’ achieved or not.
- To recommend necessary changes in the Aims and objectives, organisation and training as also the consequential financial/administrative arrangements to be incorporated to implement the recommendations.
- Committee submitted it’s Report in 1974.
REVISED AIMS FOR THE NCC AS FORMULATED BY THE MAHAJANI COMMITTEE
- Development of leadership, character, comradeship, spirit of sportsmanship and the ideal of Service.
- To create a force of disciplined manpower, which in a national emergency could be of assistance in the defence of the country.
- To provide training for students with a view to devp in them OLQ’s thus [also]* enabling them to obtain commissions in the Armed Forces.
the word ‘also’ was inserted by the Ministry of Defence in 1976 as it was perceived that defence of the country is the responsibility of the entire nation and the primary aim of NCC should no longer be to create a trained and disciplined reserve of manpower for the Armed Forces.
OTHER HIGHLIGHTS OF THE MAHAJANI COMMITTEE REPORT
- Enrolment be selective: Strictly be in accordance with Physical Fitness Criterion as laid down in the NCC Act and selection be made harder, to admit only the very best.
- Reduce strength of SD and reciprocally increase strength of JD.
- Increase strength of JW and SW.
- Since NCC is controlled by the Ministry of Defence at the Centre and the Education Ministry in the states, desirable to hold joint conferences of the state representatives and Director General NCC, regularly.
FURTHER REVISION OF THE AIMS OF NCC
Another critical examination of the existing Aims was done by the development Committee-1998 and the following revised Aims were adopted :-
- To develop leadership, character, courage, comradeship, discipline, sportsmanship and the ideals of selfless service and National integration among the youth, thus preparing them to take their rightful place as patriotic citizens of India in all walks of life.
- To create a human resource of disciplined, trained and motivated youth always available for the service of the nation.
- To create suitable environment to motivate the youth to take up a career in the Armed Forces.
AIMS OF NCC : YET AGAIN REVISED FOR THE IVth TIME
The Aims of NCC, revised for the 4th time and currently applicable are as follows :-
(a) To develop qualities of character, courage, comradeship, discipline, leadership, secular outlook, spirit of adventure & sportsmanship and the ideals of selfless service among the youth to make them useful citizens.
(b) To create a human resources of organized, trained and motivated youth to provide leadership in all walks of life including the Armed Forces and always available for the service of the Nation.
(c) To create suitable environment to motivate the youth to take up a career in the Armed Forces.